Climate change is driving global inequality.

Research

  1. Research

    Unaccountable Accountability

  2. Research

    The State of Local Humanitarian Leadership

    A learning report on a series of LHL online convenings held in Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, the Pacific, and West Africa

    rr-lhl-online-convenings-260522-en.pdf
  3. Research

    Best and Worst States to Work in America - 2022

    Each year, the Best States to Work Index ranks the US states on compensation and conditions for workers.

    BSWI 2022 report cover
  4. Research

    TOSSD Data for 2020: An overview of key trends in the data in support of sustainable development

    Data on total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD) take a recipient perspective, in contrast to official development assistance (ODA) data, which take a donor perspective. The TOSSD metric captures development resource flows that are not included in donors’ reports to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Development Assistance Committee, and are intended to link resource flows to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For 2020, 98 donors reported TOSSD data, an increase of six donors from 2019. Reported net disbursements totaled $291 billion, including $62 billion reported only to TOSSD. The top five sectors in TOSSD reporting, accounting for 65% of net disbursements, were energy, donor administrative costs, in-donor refugee costs, health, and government and civil society.

    For those disbursements linked to one or more of the SDGs, 61% went to the Health, Poverty Eradication, Climate Change, support for Decent Work and Sustainable Economic Growth, Ending Hunger, and Partnerships SDGs. The gender equality SDG was allocated just 4.5% of total net disbursements. TOSSD data provided a foundation of activity level detail to enable further research on allocations to SDGs. The picture that TOSSD data provide could be more complete if additional donors submitted reports to TOSSD, and if all donors reported on links to SDGs.

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  5. Research

    The Path to Accountability: Citizen-led revenue management in Burkina Faso

    Oxfam in Burkina Faso is collaborating with civil society organizations (CSOs) to promote citizen participation in the management of natural resources and the fiscal benefits that, if administered correctly, may accompany mineral extraction. A pivotal moment in this work was the successful 1% Revenue from Gold Campaign that, in 2015, resulted in the creation of the Local Mining Fund for Development (FMDL for its French acronym). The fund guarantees the allocation of mining revenues for education, health, and social services. To date it has distributed nearly 174 million USD across Burkina Faso’s 301 districts.[1] Recognizing that legislation alone does not drive change, Oxfam and partners piloted Committees of Citizen Oversight (CCOs) in select localities to encourage citizen participation in the administration of the FMDL and improve contributions to local development priorities. The experience summarized in this case study is testimony to the value of a longstanding, unwavering, and responsive mobilization strategy that persisted past legislative wins and accompanied communities through the effective operationalization of the law.

    Oxfam au Burkina Faso collabore avec des organisations de la société civile (OSC) pour promouvoir la participation des citoyens à la gestion des ressources naturelles et aux bénéfices fiscaux qui, s'ils sont administrés correctement, peuvent accompagner l'extraction minière. Un moment charnière de ce travail a été le succès de la campagne 1% de revenus de l'or qui, en 2015, a abouti à la création du Fonds minier de développement local (FMDL). Ce fonds garantit l'affectation des revenus miniers à l'éducation, à la santé et aux services sociaux. À ce jour, il a distribué près de 174 millions USD dans les 301 districts du Burkina Faso[1]. Reconnaissant que la législation seule ne soit pas un moteur de changement, Oxfam et ses partenaires ont piloté des Comités de Veille Citoyenne (CVC) dans certaines localités pour encourager la participation des citoyens à l'administration du FMDL et améliorer les contributions aux priorités de développement local. L'expérience résumée dans cette étude de cas témoigne de la valeur d'une stratégie de mobilisation de longue date, inébranlable et réactive, qui a persisté au-delà des victoires législatives et a accompagné les communautés jusqu'à l'opérationnalisation effective de la loi.

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  6. Research

    The Value-Added Tax (VAT) Improvement Program: Raising the operational efficacy of the VAT administration in Bangladesh

    Bangladesh has a weak and inequitable tax system. This undermines domestic revenue mobilization (DRM) and the financing of pro-poor public expenditures. Over the past 15 years, the government of Bangladesh (GoB) has relied on the regressive value-added tax (VAT) for more than a third of all revenues, with little progress towards strengthening direct taxation of high net-worth individuals and large corporations. Robust social protection systems can mitigate the regressive character of VAT, especially if combined with exemptions for necessities. However, social protection programmes in Bangladesh inadequately cover urban low income households. Also, certain essential purchases remain subject to VAT, including medicines, cellphone charging services, and menstrual products.

    During 2015–2021, the World Bank’s VAT Improvement Program (VIP) assisted the Bangladesh National Board of Revenue (NBR) in improving VAT administration. VIP helped expedite automation, and VAT revenue increases exceed the programme’s target. But VIP did not include any objectives to improve VAT equity and fairness, and it also fell short on its ambitions to improve the transparency of VAT administration. Nor did the programme achieve the target level of increased taxpayer satisfaction. Ongoing resistance to fully automated VAT compliance procedures is likely to come from both within and outside NBR. Such procedures challenge officials’ discretionary power and the scope of VAT evasion for businesses and political elites.

    To address VAT’s regressive nature and significant impact on low income households, it is imperative that the GoB improve coverage of social protection programmes. Bangladesh and its external partners, such as the World Bank, need to focus future DRM efforts on strengthening progressive direct taxation. At the same time, the government must end gender-blind VAT administration and recognize that the tax currently has negative effects on low income female entrepreneurs and consumers, so as to contribute to both fiscal and gender justice.

    Below, you will find the full research report as well as a shorter summary of the paper.

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