1. Research

    Risk Factors for Gender-based Violence: The Case of Indian Agriculture

    The present study documents the incidence of domestic and workplace violence among Indian female agricultural workers, and the factors that put these women at risk of violence. Multiple years of nationally representative domestic violence data are analyzed, for the first time focusing on agricultural laborers. This analysis is supplemented by a summary of case studies on working conditions for female tea plantation workers, who form the bulk of hired female agricultural labor in India, focusing on factors that enable workplace violence in this setting. Taken together, the results suggest that, in the case of female agricultural laborers in India, there is significant overlap in the factors that put women at risk of domestic violence and the factors that seem to facilitate workplace violence.

    Among the most important findings, we observe that women whose families have a history of domestic violence, and women whose partners drink frequently, are about 20 percent more likely to be survivors of domestic violence themselves. Importantly, women who are employed are more likely to be survivors of domestic violence, especially women who are employed in commercial plantations, which further confirms the need to look at domestic and workplace violence in connection with each other.

    The review of existing evidence on workplace violence on tea plantations reveals that the extreme and unequal plantation hierarchies, migrant status of the workers, and lack of other job opportunities for female tea pluckers all contribute to a setting where workplace violence is normalized. As with domestic violence, accounts suggest that alcohol consumption aggravates the problem.

    This research is novel in that it makes the connection between domestic and workplace violence explicit. It argues that, in this setting, these issues should be studied in tandem. We also hope to raise broader awareness about the key link between workplace and domestic violence, and the prevalence of abuse within the household.

  2. Research

    Financing for Development in the Philippines

    As the Philippines approaches upper-middle-income status, it continues to face the challenge of fighting poverty and economic and gender inequalities, while also confronting COVID-19. Public debt is set to dramatically increase, and donors are likely to ramp up funding to help foster recovery from the pandemic. Transparency and accountability are essential to guarantee efficient and judicious use of funds. The Philippines might have to consider a “debt brake” if government borrowing exceeds manageable levels, and donors should emphasize grants over loans. Aid should focus on building self-reliance based on localization, untying assistance and support for progressive revenue-raising.

  3. Research

    Best and Worst States to Work in America 2021

    Each year, the Best States to Work Index ranks the US states on compensation and conditions for workers.

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  4. Research

    Empowering Local Governments? The LOKAL+ project in Haiti

    In Haiti, the traditional centralization of power in Port-au-Prince has far-reaching effects, one of which is the limited influence of ordinary citizens on holding local officials accountable for providing basic services like trash removal, water and sanitation, and maintaining healthy and safe marketplaces. From 2013 to 2018, USAID carried out a project known as LOKAL+ that was aimed at supporting and strengthening ten district-level governments. Oxfam studied the outcomes in three of the districts, interviewing local officials, experts on local government, community members, and representatives of community organizations. Participants reported that the project did not lead to tangible, sustainable improvements in providing local services; however, there are indications that it helped strengthen important capacities among local mayors, and there is potential for sustainable impact on the mayors’ ability to collect taxes and manage their budgets and accounting systems—a modest step forward on the path to decentralization.

  5. Research

    Local Humanitarian Leadership: The View from Local Actors

    The global call for local humanitarian leadership (LHL) points to the power imbalance between local and international actors. This study synthesizes Oxfam's experience, practice, and learning from its local humanitarian leadership approach by analyzing the power relationship between Oxfam in the Philippines and its local partners. The study first unpacks the meaning of the term “local humanitarian leadership” based on the perspectives of local partners. It then assesses lessons from the localization of Oxfam in the Philippines, primarily through its strategic-partnership model.

  6. Research

    Making Gender-Responsive Budgeting Work for Women Small-Scale Farmers: Lessons from Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania

    This paper reviews and synthesizes three research papers that look at gender-responsive budgeting in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania, with the aim of drawing out common themes and lessons learned on what it takes to ensure well-functioning GRB and how it can benefit women small-scale farmers. While Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania are not countries that systematically and efficiently practice GRB, the in-depth look at the challenges and successes of GRB in each of these countries provides some helpful insights. After a brief background section summarizing the history of GRB in each country, this paper outlines the lessons learned in five categories: 1. Setting up government practices, systems, and structures for gender-responsive budgeting; 2. Designing a more gender-responsive budgeting process; 3. Engaging citizens in the budgeting process; 4. Envisioning gender-responsive budgeting outcomes; and 5. Identifying best practices in GRB advocacy by NGOs.

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